Cleopatra VII, Pharaoh – Summary

Cleopatra VII, Pharaoh – Summary

Cleopatra (at age 18) began to assert herself as sole ruler of Egypt at the expense of her co-ruling brother Ptolemy XIII (10), but within three years her enemies placed Ptolemy on the throne as the sole ruler. Thinking he would please Caesar, Ptolemy instead angered him by murdering the great Roman military and political leader Pompey. Cleopatra saw an opportunity and had herself smuggled into Ptolemy’s palace in a carpet to meet with Caesar. She became his mistress and with the defeat of Ptolemy’s army at the Battle of the Nile, Caesar backed her claim to the throne naming Ptolemy XIV as co-ruler. After allegedly poisoning her new co-ruler, Cleopatra made her son (by Caesar) Caesarion her co-regent and successor. After Caesar’s death, she would align herself with Mark Antony with whom she had three children. After Antony’s defeat at Actium and his subsequent suicide, Cleopatra would follow – committing suicide with an asp bite on the...
Hatshepsut, Pharaoh – Summary

Hatshepsut, Pharaoh – Summary

Hatshepsut, fifth pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, was one of the most prolific builders of ancient Egypt. She constructing more grand and more numerous buildings than her Middle Kingdom predecessors. Her mortuary temple was her masterpiece. Located near the entrance to the Valley of the Kings, and the first to be built in the area, the grandeur of this complex led later pharaohs to associate their complexes with hers at the site. She also re-established trade networks that built the wealth of this dynasty. The first recorded expedition to transplant foreign trees was ordered by Hatshepsut. Evidence indicates she had successful military campaigns in Nubia, the Levant, and...