Temple of Concord

Temple of Concord

Dedicated to the Roman goddess Concordia (goddess of concord and harmony), the Temple of Concord was vowed in 367 BC to commemorate reconciliation between patricians and plebians after the Aventine Secession. The Licinian laws, expanding the civil rights of the commoners or ‘plebians’, had been proposed and were eventually accepted despite great opposition by the patricians. M. Furius Camillus had promised to consecrate a temple to Concordia if peace was made. As part of the agreement between the two groups the first plebian consul was elected and going forward one of the two consuls was required to be a plebian. Centrally located between the Capitoline Hill and the Comitium, the Temple served as a reminder of the peace that had been established. In 211 B.C. a statue of Victory on its roof was struck down by lightning. In order to foster harmony after the murder of Gaius Gracchus, the Temple was rebuilt in 121 BC. The original dedication probably taking place on the 22nd of July. It was rededicated on January 16, 12 AD by the future emperor Tiberius during the reign of Augustus. This final restoration was noted for its opulent marble and rich architectural ornamentation. The cella, (central chamber or sanctuary of the temple) housed a row of Corinthian columns. These columns had pairs of leaping rams instead of the traditional corner volutes and were raised on a continuous plinth projecting from the wall that divided the cella into bays. Part of the function of the Temple appears to have been as a museum since it housed a wealth of Greek sculpture, paintings, and other works of...

All Roads Lead to Rome – Milliarium Aureum

In 20 BC, Augustus, as curator viarum or inspector-in-chief of a road or roads, erected the Milliarium Aureum. This monument was most likely a marble column sheathed in gilded bronze and was adjacent to the Rostra on the opposite side from the Umbilicus Urbis. A huge marble cylinder matching this description was found in 1835 near this location. All roman roads were considered to begin from this point and distances in the Roman Empire were measured relative to that point. Hence, the saying ‘All roads lead to Rome’ was surely a reference to the Milliarium Aureum. There are three main hypotheses about what the inscription on the monument contained: 1. It contained only the name and title of the Emperor. 2. It contained the names of the most important cities of Italy and the Empire with the distances to them from Rome. 3. It contained the names of the roads out of Rome and the men who had been made curator viarum to oversee the upkeep of them. While there are marble fragments in the Forum Romanum labeled Milliarium Aureum, scholars tend to believe these fragments actually are from the Umbilicus Urbis. The derived diameter of these fragments match the diameter of the Umbilicus Urbis and would have probably been too large for a milestone monument. Items from the Creating History...
Tiberius’ Path to Emperor

Tiberius’ Path to Emperor

Ancestry Tiberius was born on the Palatine, November 16, 42 BC. His father, Tiberius Claudius Nero, came from the respected Claudian line; and his mother was Livia Drusilla who a few years after Tiberius’ birth hastily divorced her husband and married Octavian (Augustus) in a politically expedient marriage. Marcus Agrippa Notwithstanding the fact that Tiberius was now well placed, in the eyes of Augustus there was a long line of successors standing between Tiberius and the throne. When Augustus thought he was dying in 23 BC, he passed his signet ring to Marcus Agrippa. The initial indications were that there would be a power struggle between Agrippa, his trusted friend, and Marcellus his son-in-law (husband of Julia) and nephew (son of his sister Octavia). But late in 23 BC Marcellus fell ill and died, strenthening Agrippa’s position to become the next Emperor. This position was strengthened further when Augustus had Agrippa divorce his wife and marry Augustus’ newly widowed daughter Julia. Three Potential Heirs The marriage produced three potential heirs for Augustus, Gaius born in 20 BC, Lucius born in 17 BC, and Agrippa Postumus born in 12 BC shortly after the death of Agrippa. Augustus realized that with his friend Agrippa dead, if he should die, his grandsons would be without a guardian. To remedy the situation, he forced Tiberius to divorce Vipsania (who was a daughter of Agrippa) and marry the again widowed Julia. The marriage took place on February 12, 11 BC. The heirs now had an additional guardian, however this wouldn’t protect them from the fate that would befall them. Lucius died 20 August 2...